Archives for 27/09/2011

How Does Grapefruit Extract Work?

According to studies, the mode of action of the principal active ingredient of GSE – Grapefruit Extract shows itself in the cytoplasmic membrane of target micro-organisms.

The active ingredients of the extract disorganize the cytoplasmic membrane, thereby preventing the uptake of amino acids.

At the same time, there is a leakage of the low molecular weight cellular contents through the cytoplasmic membrane.

As a result the pathogen is then inactivated. The time for this is generally shorter than that of most comparable preparations.

Grapefruit Extract does not allow bacteria to build up a resistance. To date there is no evidence that any type of micro-organism has ever built up a resistance to the active ingredients of Grapefruit Extract.

Due to the mode of its activity it is believed that this resistance is impossible as Grapefruit Extract completely disrupts the cytoplasmic membrane of the organisms.

What is not known is how Grapefruit Extract can affect the cell membranes of such a diverse group of microbes with virtually no toxicity toward animal life?

An “Acute Oral Toxicity Study” which was carried out many years ago by an independent laboratory concluded that you would have to take 4,000 times the normal recommended adult internal dose to have even a 50% chance of poisoning.

GSE Applications

Here are just some of the external / topical uses of Grapefruit

Extract including, but not limited to:

  • Mouth and Lips: mouthwash, mouth ulcers, thrush, bad
    breath, cracked lips, sunburned lips, and cold sores


  • Teeth and Gums: plaque, tooth decay, toothaches, tooth
    extraction, gingivitis, and toothbrush cleaner


  • Nose and Sinuses: sinusitis, runny nose (rhinitis), and
    nasal ulcers


  • Throat: sore throat, tonsillitis, coughs, hoarseness, and


  • Ears: ear cleaning, earaches, and inflammation of the
    middle ear (otitis media) in conjunction with internal use


  • Face: acne and shaving


  • Scalp and Hair: shampoo, dandruff, itching scalp, and head


  • Skin: small cuts, skin abrasions, scratches, minor burns,
    rashes, dermatitis, psoriasis, shingles, eczema, nettle rash, insect bites and
    stings, tick and leech bites, leg ulcers, warts, and skin fungi


  • Feet: Athlete’s foot, sweaty feet, callouses, corns,
    blisters, nail fungi, and cuticle infections


  • Vagina and genitals: vaginitis, yeast infections, vaginal
    parasites, feminine hygiene, and fungal and parasitic diseases.


Examples of internal uses include:


  • Acute and chronic inflammations in general


  • Colds and Flu


  • Gastrointestinal infections


  • Gastritis and gastric and duodenal ulcers


  • Candida albicans and other fungal


  • Parasitic diseases


  • Allergies

Main Grapefruit use

In a good year, a single Grapefruit tree can produce around 600 kilos of fruit.

Down in sunny Florida they say that from 1 acre of a grove it is possible to harvest 400-700 boxes of grapefruit. 700 boxes of grapefruit weigh approximately 27.5 tons (circa 60,000 pounds).

Setting aside the fruit used in the manufacture of Grapefruit Extract, around 40% of the Grapefruit harvested each season is used for juice. The other 60% is sold as fresh grapefruit.

GSE: What is it?


GSE is made by first converting Grapefruit seeds and pulp into a very acidic liquid.

This liquid is loaded with polyphenolic compounds, including
quercitin, helperidin, campherol glycoside, neohelperidin, naringin, apigenin,
rutinoside, poncirin, etc. The polyphenols themselves are unstable but are
chemically converted into more stable substances that belong to a diverse class
of products called quaternary ammonium compounds.

Some other quaternary compounds, Benzethonium Chloride and Benzalkonium
Chloride, for example, are used industrially as antimicrobials, but are toxic
to animal life. The B Vitamin Choline is also a quaternary compound, but is
non-toxic and even essential for maintaining healthy neurological function and
fat metabolism.

GSE features the best of both worlds: the quaternary compounds derived from Grapefruit
exhibit broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, while evidencing none of the toxic
side-effects of chemically-derived quaternaries.

The finished product is a viscous, yellow-amber coloured
liquid that features a taste that is both bitter and acidic. (Practitioners of
Chinese and Ayurvedic medicine consider both qualities to be part of the
therapeutic process.) Pure Vegetable Glycerine is added to reduce the
bitterness and acidity to a tolerable level and to reduce the possibility that
incidental contact could cause irritation to the skin or mucous membranes.

GSE Production

  1. Grapefruit pulp and seeds (the by-product of expeller-extracted grapefruit juice) is
    dried and ground into a fine powder.
  2. The grapefruit powder is dissolved in purified water and distilled to remove
    the fibre and pectin.
  3. This distilled slurry is spray dried at low temperatures forming a concentrated
    grapefruit bioflavonoid powder.
  4. This concentrated powder is dissolved in vegetable glycerine and heated.
  5. Food grade Ammonium Chloride and Ascorbic Acid are added, and this mixture is
    heated under pressure.
  6. This material undergoes catalytic conversion using natural catalysts (including
    hydrochloric acid and natural enzymes.).
  7. This slurry is cooled, filtered and treated with ultraviolet light.

The amount of Ammonium Chloride remaining in the final
product is between 15% and 19%.

The amount of Ascorbic Acid remaining in the final product
is between 25mg/g and 30mg/g.

There is no residue of hydrochloric acid in the final

How does it work?

It should come as no surprise that we know a lot more about
what GSE is good for, than exactly how it works.

Take aspirin. Since its development in 1899, billions of
people have benefited from its ability to reduce inflammation, lessen pain, and
lower fever. But exactly how it works is only recently being better understood.

From Seoul, Korea, Dr. Sung-Hwan of Abcom Chemie Co., Ltd states:

“Considering all the electron micrographs, we believe
that the microbial uptake of GSE alters the cell membrane by inhibiting enzymatic activities… You can see the loss of the cytoplasmic membrane.”

What is not known is how GSE can affect the cell membranes of such a diverse group
of microbes with virtually no toxicity toward animal life. It has been
estimated that you would have to take 4,000 times the normal adult oral dose to
risk a 50% chance of poisoning. And to complicate matters further, since
viruses do not have a cell membrane of their own, how is it that GSE can act as an antiviral
remedy as it does?

Unravelling the mysteries of GSE and its mechanisms would undoubtedly provide
extremely valuable insight into the basic activity of microbes. We might hope
that research funds will become available to answer the many questions raised
about how it can be so potent and yet so safe.