Grapefruit – where do they originate?

Most of the Grapefruit that are used to make GSE come from orchards, or groves as they are known locally, in sunny Florida, USA

One specific area of Florida could be said to be the home of Grapefruit. This is the Indian River district which comprises a very narrow strip of land on the eastern seaboard of Florida, stretching about 200 miles from Daytona Beach to West Palm Beach.

During the 1920’s, the fame of Indian River Grapefruit had spread to such an extent that growers of citrus in other areas of Florida began describing their fruit as “Indian River.” Not surprisingly the growers in the Indian River area became quite concerned over the misuse of their name, and eventually took legal advice to try to stop this happening.

Eventually in 1930 the Federal Trade Commission issued a “cease and desist” order prohibiting the use of the term “Indian River” on citrus not grown in the Indian River district. An Indian River Citrus League was created, and still exists today. Their website is

Now eighty years later this district produces around 75% of the total grapefruit crop grown in Florida. It is said that 3 out of every 4 grapefruit that leave Florida come from this area.

GSE: What is it?


GSE is made by first converting Grapefruit seeds and pulp into a very acidic liquid.

This liquid is loaded with polyphenolic compounds, including
quercitin, helperidin, campherol glycoside, neohelperidin, naringin, apigenin,
rutinoside, poncirin, etc. The polyphenols themselves are unstable but are
chemically converted into more stable substances that belong to a diverse class
of products called quaternary ammonium compounds.

Some other quaternary compounds, Benzethonium Chloride and Benzalkonium
Chloride, for example, are used industrially as antimicrobials, but are toxic
to animal life. The B Vitamin Choline is also a quaternary compound, but is
non-toxic and even essential for maintaining healthy neurological function and
fat metabolism.

GSE features the best of both worlds: the quaternary compounds derived from Grapefruit
exhibit broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, while evidencing none of the toxic
side-effects of chemically-derived quaternaries.

The finished product is a viscous, yellow-amber coloured
liquid that features a taste that is both bitter and acidic. (Practitioners of
Chinese and Ayurvedic medicine consider both qualities to be part of the
therapeutic process.) Pure Vegetable Glycerine is added to reduce the
bitterness and acidity to a tolerable level and to reduce the possibility that
incidental contact could cause irritation to the skin or mucous membranes.

GSE Production

  1. Grapefruit pulp and seeds (the by-product of expeller-extracted grapefruit juice) is
    dried and ground into a fine powder.
  2. The grapefruit powder is dissolved in purified water and distilled to remove
    the fibre and pectin.
  3. This distilled slurry is spray dried at low temperatures forming a concentrated
    grapefruit bioflavonoid powder.
  4. This concentrated powder is dissolved in vegetable glycerine and heated.
  5. Food grade Ammonium Chloride and Ascorbic Acid are added, and this mixture is
    heated under pressure.
  6. This material undergoes catalytic conversion using natural catalysts (including
    hydrochloric acid and natural enzymes.).
  7. This slurry is cooled, filtered and treated with ultraviolet light.

The amount of Ammonium Chloride remaining in the final
product is between 15% and 19%.

The amount of Ascorbic Acid remaining in the final product
is between 25mg/g and 30mg/g.

There is no residue of hydrochloric acid in the final

How does it work?

It should come as no surprise that we know a lot more about
what GSE is good for, than exactly how it works.

Take aspirin. Since its development in 1899, billions of
people have benefited from its ability to reduce inflammation, lessen pain, and
lower fever. But exactly how it works is only recently being better understood.

From Seoul, Korea, Dr. Sung-Hwan of Abcom Chemie Co., Ltd states:

“Considering all the electron micrographs, we believe
that the microbial uptake of GSE alters the cell membrane by inhibiting enzymatic activities… You can see the loss of the cytoplasmic membrane.”

What is not known is how GSE can affect the cell membranes of such a diverse group
of microbes with virtually no toxicity toward animal life. It has been
estimated that you would have to take 4,000 times the normal adult oral dose to
risk a 50% chance of poisoning. And to complicate matters further, since
viruses do not have a cell membrane of their own, how is it that GSE can act as an antiviral
remedy as it does?

Unravelling the mysteries of GSE and its mechanisms would undoubtedly provide
extremely valuable insight into the basic activity of microbes. We might hope
that research funds will become available to answer the many questions raised
about how it can be so potent and yet so safe.